Los CDC actualizarán las páginas web con el término "mpox" para reducir el estigma y otros inconvenientes asociados a la terminología anterior. Este cambio responde a la reciente decisión de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre el tema.

Aspectos básicos de la vacunación contra la viruela símica o del mono

Monkeypox is a disease caused by a virus that is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox. In the United States, two vaccines (JYNNEOS and ACAM2000) may be used to prevent the spread of monkeypox. Se espera que las dos vacunas brinden un buen nivel de protección contra la viruela símica o del mono. The main vaccine being used against monkeypox during the 2022 monkeypox outbreak is JYNNEOS.

JYNNEOS is a 2-dose vaccine. It was developed to protect against both monkeypox and smallpox. The vaccine may be given to children and adults who are at high risk for monkeypox. The second dose of JYNNEOS should be given 4 weeks after the first dose. The highest level of protection is expected to be reached 14 days after the second dose of the JYNNEOS vaccine.

La vacunación es una herramienta importante para prevenir la propagación de la viruela símica o del mono. Because there are limitations in our knowledge about the effectiveness of these vaccines, people who are vaccinated are encouraged to continue to protegerse. Even after they are vaccinated, people should avoid close, skin-to-skin or intimate contact with someone who has monkeypox.

Who May Get Vaccinated

In the current outbreak, there are two groups of people who may get vaccinated: 1) people who have already been exposed to mpox, and 2) people who might be exposed in the future. Comuníquese con el departamento de salud local to find out if you may get vaccinated and where vaccine is available in your area.

Es posible que ya haya estado expuesto a la viruela símica o del mono si:

  • You have been identified as a close contact of someone with monkeypox
  • You learn that one of your sex partners in the past 2 weeks has been diagnosed with monkeypox
  • You are a gay, bisexual, or other man who has had sex with men, or you are a transgender, nonbinary, or gender-diverse person, and in the past 2 weeks you have had:
    • Sex with multiple partners or group sex
    • Relaciones sexuales en un local de sexo comercial (como un club de sexo o sauna).
    • Sex at an event, venue, or in an area where monkeypox transmission is occurring

Podría estar expuesto a la viruela símica o del mono en el futuro si:

  • You are a gay, bisexual, or other man who has sex with men, or you are a transgender, nonbinary, or gender-diverse person, and any of the following:
    • A new diagnosis of one or more sexually transmitted diseases including HIV, chancroid, chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis.
    • Ha tenido más de una pareja sexual.
  • You are a person who any of the following:
    • Relaciones sexuales en un local de sexo comercial (como un club de sexo o sauna).
    • Relaciones sexuales en un evento o en un área con transmisión de viruela símica o del mono.
  • You are a person whose sexual partner identifies with any of the above scenarios that might expose them to monkeypox.
  • Es una persona que piensa participar en alguna de las situaciones mencionadas arriba.
  • You are a person in certain occupational exposure risk groups*

*People at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses include research laboratory personnel working with orthopoxviruses, clinical laboratory personnel performing diagnostic testing for orthopoxviruses, and orthopoxvirus and health care worker response teams designated by appropriate public health and antiterror authorities. (see recomendaciones del ACIP).

Nota: Puede obtener información sobre la disponibilidad de vacunas en su área mediante su departamento de salud.

Tenga en cuenta lo siguiente:

  • Vacunarse antes de exponerse a la viruela símica o del mono aumenta las probabilidades de prevenir la enfermedad. For best protection, 2 doses of JYNNEOS vaccine spaced 4 weeks apart are recommended.
  • If you have already been exposed, getting vaccinated as soon as possible after exposure to someone with monkeypox (ideally within 4 days) may help prevent the disease or make it less severe.
  • If you were exposed 4-14 days ago, you may still consider getting vaccinated, but it might be less protective.
  • If you were exposed more than 14 days ago, it may still be beneficial to get vaccinated. Ask your healthcare provider if vaccination is right for you.
  • If you have signs or symptoms of monkeypox, or were diagnosed with monkeypox, or recovered from monkeypox, vaccination is not likely to provide benefit. Monkeypox infection likely gives you enough protection from future monkeypox disease.
  • If you received the first dose of the vaccine and then got monkeypox, you do not need to get the second dose at this time because the infection likely gives you enough additional protection from future monkeypox disease.
  • Actualmente, los CDC no recomiendan la vacunación contra la viruela símica o del mono para el público en general ni para todas las personas sexualmente activas.
  • If you are eligible to get the vaccine in the skin in your forearm, but prefer a more discreet location, your provider can now give you your monkeypox shot in either the skin over your shoulder blade, or the skin over your shoulder muscle.
  • If you are under age 18 or you have ever had keloid scars (thick, raised scars), ask for the vaccine to be given to you "subcutaneously". This means that the vaccine will be injected in the fat layer underneath the skin on the back of your upper arm (triceps).
  • Si necesita ayuda para decidir si debe vacunarse, hable con un proveedor de atención médica o contacte a su departamento de salud local.
  • Además de vacunarse, hay otras medidas que puede tomarpara prevenir la viruela símica o del mono.
  • Learn more about receiving the JYNNEOS vaccine with other vaccines.

CDC will update vaccination guidance as new information becomes available

Dónde puede vacunarse

 

  • In some large cities, monkeypox vaccines may be available at the health department, public health clinics, hospitals, or even at large social gatherings or venues.
  • En otras áreas, las vacunas contra la viruela símica o del mono solo están disponible a través del departamento de salud.
  • Comuníquese con el departamento de salud localpara ver qué opciones de vacunas hay en su comunidad.
  • Building Health Online Communities (BHOC) has a monkeypox vaccine locator tool. This tool is not affiliated with CDC but can help you find locations that provide the monkeypox vaccines near you.

Costo de la vacuna

  • Las vacunas contra la viruela símica o del mono son gratuitas. Los proveedores deben administrarle la vacuna independientemente de su capacidad de pago.
  • Los proveedores pueden facturarle a un programa o plan que cubra el costo de administración de la vacuna contra la viruela símica o del mono (como un seguro privado o Medicare/Medicaid).

Distribución de la vacuna

Preguntas sobre la vacuna contra la viruela símica o del mono
Captura de pantalla del video: 7 preguntas sobre las vacunas contra la viruela símica o del mono con el Dr. Daskalakis
VIDEO

7 preguntas sobre las vacunas contra la viruela símica o del mono con el Dr. Daskalakis

El Dr. Demetre Daskalakis de los CDC explica cómo administrar la vacuna JYNNEOS para que sea posible vacunar a más personas con los suministros actuales.

Duración del video: 00:02:52

Mirar video

  • El Gobierno de los EE. UU. está trabajando para ampliar el acceso a las vacunas de manera rápida, eficaz y equitativa.
  • El Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos (HHS) ha estado distribuyendo la vacuna JYNNEOS de la Reserva Nacional Estratégica desde mayo del 2022.
  • In July 2022, the U.S. government ordered an additional 2.5 million vials of JYNNEOS vaccine from the manufacturer.
  • El 9 de agosto del 2022, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de los EE. UU. emitió una autorización de uso de emergencia que permitió que los proveedores de atención médica puedan administrar una dosis menor de la vacuna JYNNEOS subcutánea en el antebrazo (como la prueba cutánea de la tuberculina) como opción preferida a la dosis estándar que suele administrarse en la parte superior del brazo. This ability to use a smaller dose increased the overall number of doses available by up to 5 times while providing similar immune response. Read on this alternative dosing regimen.
  • On September 28, 2022, the White House announced the expansion of the National Monkeypox Vaccine Strategy to offer vaccine to some people who might be exposed to monkeypox in the future. This is called pre-exposure prophylaxis.
  • Lea toda la Estrategia nacional de la Casa Blanca para la vacuna contra la viruela símica o del mono.
  • Learn more information about the JYNNEOS vaccine
Vacunas aprobadas

La vacuna JYNNEOS está aprobada para la prevención de la viruela y la viruela símica o del mono. Es la principal vacuna utilizada en los EE. UU. durante este brote. La vacuna ACAM2000 es una alternativa a la vacuna JYNNEOS. Está demostrado que los efectos secundarios son más frecuentes que los de la vacuna JYNNEOS y no está recomendada para personas con sistemas inmunitarios debilitados.